Saturday, June 25, 2011

Aloe vera

ALOE VERA

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Aloe vera, also known as the medicinal aloe, is a species of succulent plant. Aloe vera grows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa, India and other arid areas. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine. Many scientific studies of the use of aloe vera have been undertaken, some of them conflicting. Despite these limitations, there is some preliminary evidence that Aloe vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of wound and burn healing, diabetes and elevated blood lipids in humans. These positive effects are thought to be due to the presence of compounds such as polysaccharides, mannans, anthraquinones and lectins.

Paracelsus, the Father of Pharmacology said..
“All that mankind needs for good health and
healing is provided in nature..
the challenge of science is to find it!”

In recent decades, medical science has confirmed and even extended many of the health claims of this remarkable plant. I promise to unreservedly share with you all that I’ve found out about it.

In a little while equipped with all the tremendous information you’ll garner here you too can begin to enjoy the wonders and amazing health benefits of… Aloe Vera – The Natural Healer!

Now let aloe vera juice benefit you as:

* Aloe Vera Gel Helps cleanse your digestive system
* Aloe Vera Gel Gives you a natural energy boost
* Aloe Vera Gel Helps the hydration of your skin
* Aloe Vera Gel Encourages renewal of skin cells, and soothe your skin
* and Aloe Vera Gel Supports your Immune System

Make pharmacy is your career

Make pharmacy is your career

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Visiting the pharmacy can be quite a chore. There are, however, some basic guidelines that can improve the pharmacy experience for both patient and pharmacist.
Having to visit the pharmacy is one of life's unpleasant, but necessary tasks. If you're well, lingering among possibly contagious people while waiting on a refill seems unbearable. And if you are ill, patience is certain to be at a minimum. More than anything, you just want to get your medicine and go home. You wonder how hard it could be to fill a simple prescription.
It's harder than you might think. Pharmacists do more than just dispense medicine. They are consummate professionals assuming the roles of information provider, safety officer, health counselor, and insurance agent. Besides the careful attention the pharmacist must devote to each prescription, there are a variety of factors affecting your pharmacy visit.
Many of them—inventory, pricing, and client volume—are beyond your control. However, there are a few things you can do to improve your overall pharmacy experience, insure your safety, and perhaps decrease your wait time.

Sunday, June 19, 2011

LFA-1/ICAM-1interaction inhibitors

Computer aided drug designing 

studies on pharmacological

inhibitors LFA-1 



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Lymphocyte function-associated antigen - LFA
Inter-Cellular Adhesion Molecule - ICAM

The LFA-1/ICAM interaction can be disrupted at the site of LFA-1/ICAM interaction, the metal-ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS), or through binding to an allosteric site (I domain allosteric site, IDAS) on LFA-1 that causes it to adopt a conformation that cannot bind to ICAM. Binding to the MIDAS site has been successfully achieved through peptide and peptidomimetic strategies by researchers at Genentech. Our strategy focused on the allosteric site through modification of a series of molecules. Herein, we describe the in silico study of a series of potent inhibitors of the LFA-1/ICAM interaction by utilizing an Analogue-based drug design approach and Structure-based drug design

This study indicates that there are several factors that influence the biological activity of LFA-1 inhibitors

Skin cancer

skin cancer treated with cloned CD4+T-cells


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The first time successfully treated a skin cancer patient with cells cloned from his own immune system,the ground-breaking treatment for advanced melanoma, or skin cancer, led to a long remission for the patient and used his own cloned infection-fighting T-cells.

The melanoma was already well advanced and in stage four.
The T-cells which specifically fight melanoma were modified and expanded in the laboratory and some five billion cells were then infused into the patient, who received no other kind of treatment.
Two months later no tumors were found during scans of the patient's organs. And he has been cancer free for two years, Yee said.
"We were surprised by the anti-tumor effect of these CD4 T cells and its duration of response," Yee said. "For this patient we were successful, but we would need to confirm the effectiveness of therapy in a larger study."
It was the first ever case to show that cloned cells from a patient's own immune system can successful combat skin cancer. If further tests confirm the efficiency of the method, it could be used in some 25 percent of patients with late-stage skin cancer, the study said.
Using a patient's own immune system to combat cancer, called immunotherapy, is a growing area of research that aims to develop less-toxic cancer treatments than standard chemotherapy and radiation.
Some 160,000 cases of melanoma are diagnosed around the world every year, particularly affecting white men living in very sunny regions.
Although it usually affects the skin, in rare cases it can also infect the eyes and intestines.
According to the World Health Organization, some 48,000 people die from melanoma every year

Yee and his associates from the Clinical Research Division at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle removed
CD4+ T-cells, a type of white blood cell, from a 52-year-old man whose melanoma had spread to a groin lymph node and to one of his lungs.

Us doctors have for the first time successfully treated a skin cancer patient with cells cloned from his own immune system.

LEMON

Lemon


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                       The leading acid citrus fruit, because of its very appealing color, odor and flavor, the lemon, Citrus limon Burm. f. (syns. C. limonium Risso, C. limonia Osbeck, C. medica var. limonium Brandis), is known in Italy as limone; in most Spanish-speaking areas as limón, limón agria, limón real, or limón francés; in German as limonen; in French as citrónnier; in Dutch as citroen. In Haiti, it is limon France; in Puerto Rico, limon amarillo. In the Netherlands Antilles, lamoentsji, or lamunchi, are locally applied to the lime, not to the lemon as strangers suppose. The lemon is not grown there.

                        Several lemon-like fruits are domestically or commercially regarded as lemons wherever they are grown and, accordingly, must be discussed under this heading. These include: Rough lemon (C. jambhiriLush.), Sweet lemon (C. limetta Risso), 'Meyer' (lemon X mandarin hybrid); 'Perrine' (lime X lemon hybrid); 'Ponderosa' (presumed lemon X citron hybrid), qq.v. under "Varieties".



Medicinal Uses: Lemon juice is widely known as a diuretic, antiscorbutic, astringent, and febrifuge. In Italy, the sweetened juice is given to relieve gingivitis, stomatitis, and inflammation of the tongue. Lemon juice in hot water has been widely advocated as a daily laxative and preventive of the common cold, but daily doses have been found to erode the enamel of the teeth. Prolonged use will reduce the teeth to the level of the gums. Lemon juice and honey, or lemon juice with salt or ginger, is taken when needed as a cold remedy. It was the juice of the Mediterranean sweet lemon, not the lime, that was carried aboard British sailing ships of the 18th Century to prevent scurvy, though the sailors became known as "limeys".

                Oil expressed from lemon seeds is employed medicinally. The root decoction is taken as a treatment for fever in Cuba; for gonorrhea in West Africa. An infusion of the bark or of the peel of the fruit is given to relieve colic.




GREEN TEA


Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis)



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                                              Green tea is particularly rich in health-promoting flavonoids (which account for 30% of the dry weight of a leaf), including catechins and their derivatives. The most abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is thought to play a pivotal role in the green tea's anticancer and antioxidant effects. Catechins should be considered right alongside of the better-known antioxidants like vitamins E and C as potent free radical scavengers and health-supportive for this reason. Of all the antioxidants known to mankind, the components of green tea are the most potent."


  • Laboratory studies suggest that green tea may help protect against or slow the growth of certain cancers, but studies in people have shown mixed results. 
  • Some evidence suggests that the use of green tea preparations improves mental alertness, most likely because of its caffeine content. There are not enough reliable data to determine whether green tea can aid in weight loss, lower blood cholesterol levels, or protect the skin from sun damage. 
  • NCCAM supports studies to learn more about the components in green tea and their effects on conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.





CADD

COMPUTER AIDED DRUG DESIGN


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Although no single drug has been designed solely by computer techniques, the contribution of these methods to drug discovery is no longer a matter of dispute.  All the world’s major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies use computational design tools.  At their lowest level the contributions represent the replacement of  crude mechanical models by  displays of  structure which are a much more accurate reflection  of  molecular  reality, capable  of  demonstrating motion  and solvent effects.  Beyond  this, theoretical calculations permit the  computation of  binding  free energies and other relevant molecular properties.  The theoretical tools include empirical molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics and, more recently,  statistical  mechanics.  This latest advance has permitted explicit solvent effects to be incorporated.  Underpinning all this work is the availability of  high quality computer graphics, largely supported on workstations.
Two distinct categories of research are clearly distinguishable:
a)
crystallography, nmr or homology modelling.
A detailed molecular structure of the target macromolecule, the drug receptor, is known from x-ray
b)
variable activity of otherwise similar molecules.
The target receptor binding site has properties which can only be inferred from a knowledge of the both these types of approach will now be considered and illustrated with some recent examples.


HDAC Inhibitors

2D-QSAR, PHARMACOPHORE AND DOCKING STUDIES ON HDAC INHIBITORS


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Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are new and promising anti neo plastic agents. Current methods for monitoring early response rely on invasive biopsies or indirect blood-derived markers. Our goal was to develop a magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)–based method to detect HDAC inhibition.

The in-silico studies of HDAC inhibitors were found to be highly promising in further improvement and development of new lead compounds. Structure based studies like docking and de novo ligand design were performed. In the docking studies, methods like C-Docker, ligand fit, lib-dock and flexible docking were performed by using low active and high active compounds. The de novo design of ligand was performed using Ludi and this newly designed compound showed interactions with His180 and Try306 with a dock score of 91.26 when lib-dock was performed. These interactions are similar to the interactions shown by the crystal ligand that shows three interactions with the same protein as His 180 and Tyr 306.